Into the Design of the Sukhoi Su-25 Aircraft

In the realm of military aviation, few aircraft have earned a reputation for durability, effectiveness, and sheer tenacity like the SU-25.

Often referred to as the “Grach” or “Frogfoot,” this rugged ground-attack aircraft has been a stalwart companion to numerous air forces around the world.

Developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War, the SU-25 has withstood the test of time and remains an integral part of modern military operations, particularly in providing close air support (CAS) to ground troops.

The Origins and Development

The origin of the Su-25 dates back to the late 1960s when Soviet military planners recognized the need for a dedicated ground-attack aircraft capable of supporting ground forces in intense combat scenarios.

The aircraft’s design philosophy revolved around providing robust armor, powerful weaponry, and remarkable survivability.

The result was the Su-25, a twin-engine jet aircraft that could excel in the hazardous environment of close-range combat.

The first prototype took to the skies in 1972, and after a series of refinements, the aircraft entered service with the Soviet Air Force in the early 1980s.

Its operational debut in the Soviet-Afghan War showcased its effectiveness in providing vital support to ground troops, often operating from austere airfields close to the battlefield.

The SU-25 Design

At the heart of the SU-25’s exceptional performance lies its innovative engine configuration and carefully designed flight control systems.

These aspects synergize to grant the aircraft the remarkable maneuverability, survivability, and effectiveness that have become its hallmarks.

Engine Configuration

r-195 engine for the su-25 aircraft

The aircraft is equipped with two Tumansky R-195 turbofan engines, each delivering substantial thrust and reliability. 

Derived from its predecessor, the R-95Sh, the R-195 engine proudly boasts heightened thrust, improved maintainability, a diminished infrared signature, and enhanced stability during missile launch.

The R-195 engine presents a two-shaft configuration and a modular design, highlighted by a three-stage low-pressure compressor devoid of a guide vane, coupled with a five-stage high-pressure compressor.

These engines also integrate a cannular combustion chamber featuring twin nozzles, with both their low-pressure and high-pressure turbines adopting single-stage designs.

Noteworthy is the absence of an afterburner in this engine, which instead employs a fixed-area nozzle.

The engine’s reputation stems from its user-friendly operational attributes, outstanding reliability, and ability to persevere in combat scenarios.

Its capacity to endure hits from 23mm rounds underscores its durability, sustaining operability even after enduring significant damage, as evidenced by real combat instances.

This engine setup not only ensures that the aircraft can continue to operate even if one engine is compromised but also provides an important power reserve that enables it to perform agile maneuvers and swift acceleration, crucial for both evading enemy threats and engaging targets with precision.

Aerodynamic Design and Material Composition

The SU-25’s aerodynamic configuration is meticulously tailored to bolster its effectiveness in ground-attack missions.

Its wings exhibit a moderate sweep, optimizing both high-speed performance and stability, a design choice that proves advantageous in traversing low-altitude and high-speed scenarios.

This aerodynamic finesse not only contributes to its agility during intricate maneuvers but also enhances its adaptability within contested airspace.

Composed of a composite blend of materials, the airframe features a strategic composition, with 60% aluminum, 19% steel, 13.5% titanium, and 2% magnesium alloy.

These elements collaboratively shape the aircraft’s structure, aligning the wings as cantilever sections united with the central torsion box, yielding a harmonious fuselage-wing synergy.

Control Surfaces, Flight Control System, and Cockpit

Bolstering the SU-25’s aerodynamic finesse is an intricate flight control system that synergizes with its control surfaces.

A combination of ailerons, elevators, and rudders collectively respond to the pilot’s commands and the demands of the flight control system.

This dynamic interplay empowers pilots with precise control, facilitating nimble and exact maneuvers even amid high-stress circumstances.

Within the cockpit, a Zvevda K-36 ejection seat is strategically positioned for pilot safety.

This seat accompanies a center control stick and left-hand throttles, creating an ergonomic environment for flying the aircraft and interacting with standard flight instruments.

Notably, the cockpit’s protective measures are exemplified by the six-millimeter-thick steel headrest affixed to the rear bulkhead, while an armored titanium enclosure envelops the cockpit, accentuated by transit ports in the walls.

This robust design fortifies pilot protection during combat, complementing the aircraft’s adept aerodynamic and control systems.

Global Impact and Modernization

su-25 (su 25) aircraft.
Credit: Dmitry Terekhov

The SU-25’s reputation extends well beyond the borders of its country of origin. It has been exported to numerous nations, each recognizing the aircraft’s value in modern warfare.

Countries such as Iraq, Iran, and various African nations have operated or continue to operate variants of the SU-25.

Its simplicity of design, coupled with its robustness, makes it an attractive choice for air forces with limited resources or infrastructure.

As technology has advanced, so too has the SU-25. Various upgrades have been applied to the aircraft to keep it relevant in the modern era.

These upgrades often include improved avionics, enhanced weapons systems, and even provisions for incorporating precision-guided munitions.

These modernization efforts ensure that the SU-25 remains a credible force multiplier on the battlefield, capable of taking on evolving threats.


The SU-25 aircraft’s legacy is one of steadfast service, unwavering resilience, and relentless dedication to providing close air support. Its design, capabilities, and adaptability have earned it a place in the annals of military aviation history.

Despite the passage of time and technology, the SU-25 continues to demonstrate its worth on the modern battlefield.

As conflicts continue to arise in diverse and challenging environments, the SU-25’s proven ability to deliver precise and effective support to ground forces ensures that it remains an indispensable asset for air forces across the globe.

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